Bladder cancer treatment
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer among men; in women, it is less common. As a rule, a bladder tumor develops slowly, and it can be successfully managed without major surgery. Moreover, in most cases of bladder cancer, the risk of developing a life-threatening tumor is extremely small. Early diagnosis and regular examinations are key to the success of treatment.Bladder cancer symptomsThe most common sign of bladder cancer is the appearance of blood in the urine. Sometimes it can be seen with the naked eye, but often the presence of blood cells can only be detected during the generalurinalysis. The appearance of blood in the urine may be accompanied by unpleasant sensations during urination (usually described as “burning”). In addition, urination may be more frequent and more urgent than usual.
In the early stages of the disease, other symptoms are absent. Therefore, if there is blood in the urine or in case of obstruction in urination, an examination should be immediately taken. It is important to remember that these symptoms do not necessarily indicate the presence of a tumor - they can also be caused by stones, inflammation of the urethra, enlarged prostate, etc. In any case, the cause of these symptoms must first be precisely determined.howare diagnosed with bladder cancer?If blood is found in the urine, several examinations should be performed to exclude a tumor of the bladder. This disease is the responsibility of urology, so even if you have been to a family doctor, you should visit a urologist.
After clarifying the medical history and physical examination, you will have to go through several additional checks, usually not requiring hospitalization.During cystoscopy, a thin endoscope is inserted through the urethra (urethra) into the bladder. With it, you can carefully examine the inner space of the bladder and check for tumors or other diseases. You can also take a sample from the wall.bladder (biopsy). The examination is carried out lying down, under local anesthesia, and does not require hospitalization. After cystoscopy, a slight burning sensation during urination is possible, which will pass after a day or two. Drinking plenty of fluids these days is recommended.CT urography is a computed tomography scan during which a contrast agent is injected into the body and quickly concentrates in the urethra. After this, computed tomography shows the condition of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. If the patient suffers from asthma or is allergic to drugs or iodine, special medications should be taken before the procedure to prevent an allergic reaction. It is important to note that ultrasound and computed tomographykidneys are not enough to give an exhaustive and unambiguous explanation of the causes of blood in the urine.Bladder cancer treatmentThe first step is to remove the tumor. The removed tissue is sent to the laboratory to determine the type of tumor and the depth of its penetration into the wall of the bladder.
Removal of the tumor (or its resection) usually occurs during hospitalization. The resection is performed under anesthesia using a cystoscope-like apparatus that is inserted through the urethra (urethra), without incisions or opening the abdominal cavity. In most cases, after a tumor is detected, the patient is invited to a scheduled operation. However, in cases where the tumor leadsto constant bleeding, urgent surgery is required. As a rule, tumor resection leads to a stop of bleeding.
Sometimes the complete removal of the tumor is not possible due to its size or the depth of penetration into the wall of the bladder. In such cases, a biopsy will be performed to determine the type of tumor and the depth of its penetration, after which other treatment methods will be used.
After surgery, a catheter will be left in the bladder through the urethra for several days so that the surgical wound can heal. In the first days after surgery, there may be slight bleeding from the bladder, which should gradually stop. After removal of the catheterfeeling urgent and burning, or pain when urinating. Typically, this interference is temporary. In most cases, the patient will be able to return to normal home functioning 2-3 days after surgery. The decision to continue treatment depends on the results of a histological examination (tumor type and penetration depth).The second stage of treatment may include three options. Superficial tumor, not penetrating further than the transitional epithelium. In this case, continued treatment is not required. Despite this, such tumors often occur again, especially in the first years after surgery. For this reason, especiallyIt is important to be examined regularly in a urological clinic.
The tumor penetrated beyond the transitional epithelium, but did not enter the muscle. In this case, we are also talking about a superficial tumor, but further treatment is required. As a rule, special medications are injected into the bladder. The most common and effective drug is called BCG. Its goal is to enhance the local immune response. Cytotoxic drugs that kill cancer cells are also used. The purpose of BCG and other drugs is to prevent tumor recurrence after resection. This treatment is also recommended in cases such as the presence of multiple superficial tumors.or rapid relapse of the tumor several months after surgery. The drug is administered once a week for approximately six weeks, in a urological clinic, using a thin catheter that is inserted into the bladder. After administering the drug, the patient is asked to refrain from urinating for two hours. The patient may experience a burning sensation when urinating and an unpleasant feeling in the lower abdomen, however, they quickly pass.
The tumor penetrated into the muscle, deep into the walls of the bladder. In this case, resection of the tumor through the urethra is not enough. Usually, you need to remove the entire bladder beforeopening the abdominal cavity. The goal of bladder resection is to completely remove cancer cells from the body in order to fully recover.
After resection of the bladder, a replacement should be created to allow him to urinate. There are several options for such replacements: Urine enters directly into the bag attached to the wall of the abdominal cavity.
Creating an alternative urinary pocket in the body cavity (requires the introduction of a catheter several times a day to empty the pocket of urine).
An alternative urinary pocket in the body cavity that allows normal urination through the urethra.maybeIs there a complete recovery?The answer is unequivocal: yes. Most bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Removal of the tumor through the urethra (sometimes in combination with the introduction of BCG into the bladder) leads to its complete disappearance. Often, after some time, the tumor recurs, but with regular examination, you can detect it at an early stage and successfully resist it. Clinical examination includes urinalysis, cystoscopy and computed tomography of the urethra. The more time has passed since the last treatment, the less often you need to be examined. It is important that you remember that smoking increases your risk.relapse of a bladder tumor; therefore, if you smoke, you should give up this bad habit.Tumors that penetrate deep into the wall of the bladder can also be completely cured with the help of its resection. In most cases, it is possible to create an alternative bladder that allows normal urination through the urethra. Thanks to this, the patient can not only fully recover, but also return to the normal functioning that is familiar to him.Leave a request on our website and our specialists will contact you and help you choose the best clinic in accordance with your case absolutely free. Load more ...